On the basis of the Geneva Refugee Convention, people are regarded as refugees who are outside their country of origin and are unable or, because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted by state or non-state players, are unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of their country of origin for reasons of
- race (The term "race" is used in accordance with the wording of the Geneva Refugee Convention.),
- political opinion,
- fundamental religious conviction, or
- membership of a particular social group (A group may also be regarded as a specific social group on the basis of the joint characteristic of sexual orientation.).
Examples of acts which may be regarded as persecution include:
- use of physical or psychological violence, including sexual coercion,
- legal, administrative, police and/or judicial measures which as such are discriminatory, or are applied in a discriminatory manner,
- disproportionate or discriminatory prosecution or punishment,
- refusal to provide judicial legal protection, leading to disproportionate or discriminatory punishment,
- acts linked to sexuality or which target children.