Subsidiary protection applies when neither refugee protection nor an entitlement to asylum can be granted and serious harm is threatened in the country of origin.
People are entitled to subsidiary protection who put forward substantial grounds for the presumption that they are at risk of serious harm in their country of origin and that they cannot take up the protection of their country of origin or do not wish to take it up because of that threat. Serious harm can originate from both governmental and non-governmental players.
The following are regarded as constituting serious harm:
- the imposition or enforcement of the death penalty,
- torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, or
- a serious individual threat to the life or integrity of a civilian as a result of arbitrary force within an international or domestic armed conflict.