Access to the labour market for refugees
The opportunities for refugees to gain access to the labour market, and the conditions under which access is granted, fundamentally depend on their residence status at any one time. The various different residence titles are listed below:
Residence status 1: persons with a residence permit (Aufenthaltserlaubnis)
The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) decides in the asylum proceedings on four different types of protection, namely the right of asylum, refugee protection, subsidiary protection and prohibition of deportation. Depending on the type of protection, these persons are granted a residence permit for a term of one to three years with the possibility of an extension or transformation into permanent residence.
Recognised asylum applicants who have received a positive notice from the Federal Office may as a matter of principle work on an employed basis without restrictions, and may also engage in self-employment.
It will be noted on the residence permit as well as on any additional sheet that has been issued whether such permission has been granted.
Residence status 2: persons with permission to reside (Aufenthaltsgestattung)
The Federal Office grants permission to reside to asylum applicants who are still in the asylum proceedings. This entitles them to live in Germany until the asylum proceedings have been completed, that is until the decision has been taken on the asylum application, and to work subject to specific conditions.
Residence status 3: persons with temporary suspension of deportation status (Duldung)
Persons who are not or are no longer in the asylum proceedings, or whose applications have been turned down but whose deportation has been suspended, receive from the immigration authority a "certificate of suspension of deportation", the so-called Duldung.
Persons with permission to reside or temporary suspension of deportation status are subject to special conditions for access to the labour market. These are listed below.