EMN - European Migration Network
Studies within the framework of the European Migration Network (EMN)
The Network aims to provide objective, reliable and comparable information on migration and asylum at European and national level to support both policy-making and decision-making in the European Union (EU), as well as to provide the general public with such information. In view of this goal, the National Contact Point drafts amongst other things the national studies jointly agreed on in the EMN, as well as Annual Policy Reports for Germany. The research is carried out in the research group of the Federal Office. All activities carried out by the Contact Point are co-funded by the European Commission.
2016: EMN studies on approaches dealing with rejected asylum seekers, on resettlement, humanitarian admission programmes as well as private sponsorship, on the conditions, rights and effects of family reunification and on illegal employment of third country nationals.
In 2016, the EMN will carry out four studies. The first study examines approaches dealing with rejected asylum seekers. Therefore it provides an overview on national policy and de-velopments, possible obstacles to return, measures to ensure that rejected asylum seekers are being returned and it aims to identify good practices.
The second study provides a comprehensive overview of resettlement, humanitarian admission programmes and private sponsorship programmes. The study focuses on the key actors involved, their responsibilities, the structure and main characteristics of the different programmes as well as the implementation of national policies. Furthermore, the study describes both possible obstacles occurring at different stages of the process and measures taken to deal with such obstacles. By providing good practices and elaborating further developments the study aims to identify difficulties and success factors in order to contribute to the handling of possible future humanitarian emergencies.
The third study deals with the topic of family reunification. The study aims to depict the condi-tions under which family reunification is granted and to analyse the way minimum standards set by the European Union are interpreted and transposed. In addition, the study examines the effects on the integration process in the host societies and on the prevention of forced marriages. The focus lies on legally residing third country nationals as well as refugees and asylum seekers who were granted subsidiary protection.
The fourth study will outline national policy and legal framework to prevent and detect illegal employment by third country nationals, the respective sectors where irregular migrants are employed, sanctions imposed to employers and to immigrants. The study covers both the illegal employment of a third-country national who is illegally staying on the territory of a Member State, and of a legally residing third-country national working outside the conditions of their residence and/or without a work permit.
2015: EMN studies on determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration in Germany, on the dissemination of information on voluntary return and how to reach irregular migrants not in contact with the authorities, on integration and support measures for beneficiaries of international/ humanitarian protection and changes in immigration status and purpose of stay.
In 2015, the EMN produced four studies. The first study maps out important aspects and basic assumptions in relation to the debate about current skilled labour shortages and the future demand for skilled labour in Germany. It also provides an overview of the most important parameters and calculation bases used to determine and further observe skilled labour shortages and skilled labour supply.
The second study aims to identify different approaches employed by the various actors in the field of voluntary return in reaching out to irregular migrants who are not in contact with the authorities. It will describe the role that different actors play in informing irregular migrants about (voluntary) return and which tools, content and format of information provision are used. Furthermore, it will provide estimates of the scale of irregular migrants and the number of assisted voluntary and forced returns.
The third study deals with the application of integration measures for beneficiaries of international protection in relation to labour market access and participation, identifying existing policies and good practices. Although the primary focus is on labour market access and participation, the Study indirectly also covers other integration measures which are closely linked to labour market access and participation, namely: language courses, orientation courses, education, vocational education and training, recognition of qualifications, guaranteed minimum resources, counselling and access to housing.
The forth study will include those migrants holding an ‘authorisation/right to stay’, who are not in an irregular situation and situations where the change of status takes place without the requirement for the individual to first return to their country of origin. All categories of third-country nationals whose stay is authorised (but not formalised with the granting of a residence permit) are covered (with a few limitations), i.e. international students allowed to stay and look for work, employed migrants changing to a self-employment/entrepreneur category, asylum seekers changing to labour immigrant status or family-related stays, etc.
2014: EMN studies on effectiveness of re-entry bans and readmission agreements, detention and alternatives to detention, unaccompanied minors and admitting third-country nationals for business purposes
In 2014, the EMN produced four focus studies. In the first focussed study, the legal bases and the procedures for (re-)entry bans for third-country nationals are described, and the scope and structure of the group of persons with (re-)entry bans who are intercepted at federal German borders are presented. In addition, the existing readmission agreements are specified, and their scope and use is demonstrated.
The second focus study presentes the regulatory and institutional framework of detention and alternatives to detention. Furthermore, both organizational and procedural structures on national level and the level of the Federal Länder are described. Furthermore, conditions of persons in detention pending deportation in specialized immigration detention facilities and prisons are illustrated.
The third focus study explores the situation of unaccompanied minors in terms of social rights and residence permit as well as the management of accommodation, integration measures, as well as forced and voluntary return. Moreover, the transition to adulthood and the inherent consequences concerning resident permit are analyzed.
The forth focus study deals with the admission of third-country national investors and business owners, whereat the institutional framework for foreign (non-EU) investors and business owners is central to the analysis.
2013: EMN studies on recruitment of skilled labour, organisation of reception facilities, identification of victims of human trafficking and migrant access to social security and healthcare
In 2013, the EMN produced three focussed studies as well as a more comprehensive study concerning social security of third-country nationals in Germany. The first focussed study concisely presents the national strategy and the activities undertaken to attract highly-qualified and qualified third-country nationals. In addition, it provides a statistical overview of immigration of highly-qualified and qualified third-country nationals and identifies challenges and obstacles. The second focussed study illustrates the organisation of reception facilities, as well as the supply of material resources to asylum-seekers. One focus rested on the flexibility of the reception system and its ability to guarantee sufficient accommodation and material resources in the face of increasing numbers of asylum-seekers. The third focussed study investigates the degree to which victims of human trafficking can be identified within the asylum procedure and the procedure of forced return. It also considers the cooperation between the authorities involved, as well as training and evaluation concepts.
2012: EMN studies on immigration of students from third countries, family reunification, measures to establish the identity and European internal migration
In 2012, the German EMN Contact Point carried out a main study on the immigration of students from third countries. The study focusses on the political measures undertaken by Germany to enable third-country nationals to begin their studies in Germany, as well as on how to access the labour market during studies and after graduation.
In addition to this main study, so-called focussed studies were carried out for the first time in 2012. This new format is intended to meet policy-makers’ requirements in terms of topical and compact information. The first of the three focus studies deals with the legal and political measures to prevent misuse of family reunification, whilst the others discuss the challenges faced in establishing the identity of migrants in the procedure of international protection as well as return measures, and the internal EU mobility of third-country nationals.
Furthermore, there was an update of the EMN study “The Organisation of Asylum and Migration Policies in Germany” from 2009. The study provides an overview of the organisation of asylum and migration policy in Germany. In addition to describing and analysing the institutional structures, the most important legal foundations and procedures are discussed.
German EMN studies in previous years
In 2011, the EMN produced two thematic studies. The first study, entitled Visa Policy as Migration Channel, investigates the link between migration and visa policy and explores the question of the degree to which visa policy makes a contribution towards managing and controlling migration. The second study tackles measures to prevent and reduce irregular migration in the EU. The study provides an overview of the approaches, mechanisms and measures that are available to deal with irregular migration in the Member States.
The two studies of 2010 discuss questions related to labour migration: Firstly, national practices and strategies to meet the demand for labour through immigration are investigated, whilst gaining knowledge of circular and temporary migration.
Earlier studies deal amongst other things with topics of asylum and immigration law, such as non-EU-harmonised forms of refugee protection (2009), assisted voluntary returns (2009) and unaccompanied minors (2008). Moreover, an overview study was drawn up on the organisation of asylum and immigration policy in Germany (2008).
Both more extensive research studies and “small studies” were drawn up back in the pilot phase of the EMN between 2004 and 2007, and these cover various areas within the fields of migration, asylum and integration. A small study on family reunification to Germany was carried out in 2007. The small studies are dominated by questions related to labour migration, such as labour market participation of foreigners in the healthcare sector in Germany or migration by highly-qualified workers and senior employees from third countries to Germany (both in 2006).
The research studies focus on migration and tackle voluntary and coercive returns from Germany (2006) and illegal third-country nationals in Germany (2005). This was supplemented by the analysis of the influence of immigration on German society, which has so far remained an overview (2004).